Week 15 Assignment
1) A patient is suffering chest trauma from a major car accident. The patient is articifically ventilated and survives transport to the hospital. You look at the admission notes with the following observations:
• Right thorax compressed; ribs 7 to 9 fractured
• Right lung pneumothorax; trachea deviation (shift) to the left.
Please answer the following questions based on the observations given.
A) What is pneumothorax and why would it cause the right lung to collapse in this case? Why did the left lung NOT collapse?
B) The physician inserts a chest tube into the intrapleural cavity and hooks it up to suction. How might this alleviate the pneumothorax?
2) Imagine that you have a container that allows gas to flow easily. Now, imagine that you compress this container. What will happen to the pressure on the gas in the filled container after compression and why? (Drawing is acceptable).
3) Below is a spirogram AND expiratory volume curve for a normal, healthy patient AND a patient A suffering a pulmonary disease.
Based on the information provided by the graphs above, does Patient A have an obstructive OR restrictive pulmonary disease? Please provide 2 detailed reasons to support your answer.
4) A common symptom for someone who has pulled their rib muscle is trouble breathing. Based on the information given in lecture, why would someone who has rib muscle injuries have trouble breathing?
5) Now let’s elevation and diving.
A) Assuming that our atmosphere consists of 21%, what is the partial pressure of oxygen in Mexico City? The atmospheric pressure in Mexico City would approximately be 585 mmHg. Please show your work. You will be required to show work on in-person exams.
B) Why would someone living in Mexico City be susceptible (in theory) to polycythemia? Please describe the hormone involved in this process (yes, this is a review question)!
C) Hyperbaric chambers are being explored as a potential treatment option for wound healing. Hyperbaric chambers are chambers with an increased partial pressure of oxygen compared to sea level. Would hyperbaric chambers simulate a high-altitude environment OR an underwater environment as a diver and why?
6) Why is carbon monoxide poisoning deadly? Please explain to the level of detail in lecture.
7) A) Why do athletes have lowered resting heart rates?
B) Why is it recommended that at-risk osteoporosis patients perform weight-bearing exercise?
C) Describe blood flow during exercise. (Think about which tissues will have increased blood flow (perfusion) during exercise).