Theory Defined and Applied Assignment
For this portion of your paper and assignment, you will be identifying a theory that may be used or has been
used to explain your topic ( GANG ) . Use the literature to do this. You should examine journal articles as well
as your textbook ( Michael Tonry (Ed.) (2009). The Oxford handbook of crime and public policy. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-984465-4) Once you have identified the theory, you must first explain
the tenets of the theory. For example, if you are applying Routine Activities theory, you must discuss Cohen
and Felson’s original theory and the convergence between motivated offender, lack of guardianship, and
available target. You must then discuss how the convergence of these come together to create crime.
Remember you MUST use the literature to define your topic. This is one section of the paper that your books
will be useful in writing your paper. I also recommend using other resources just not introduction to
criminology or criminal justice textbooks (i.e., Siegel).
Once you have identified and explained your theory, you should apply it to the topic/subject. You must use the
literature to apply the theory. For example, find an article where researchers have already used your topic to
test a particular theory. This will include a discussion on the causes of the crime. For example, if I am using a
biological approach to explain violence, I could argue that damage to the frontal lobe could cause an
individual to have low impulse control, thus when placed in certain situations they may be more likely to
respond in a violent impulsive manner than someone who does not have damage to their frontal lobe.
Similarly, if you are writing on violence and you are applying a structural-cultural theoretical perspective, you
may use the following article:
Oliver, W. (1989). Sexual conquest and patterns of black-on-black violence: A structural-cultural perspective.
Violence and Victims, 4(4), 257-73. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.indstate.edu:2048/login?
Your theory-defined and applied section should be double spaced, one-inch margins, typed, numbered with a
12 point font (preferably Times New Roman), stapled, 3-5 pages in length, and include a separate Reference
page. You should include at least 4 references. You will be graded on the quality of the content including
hitting all of the points above, as well as grammar, citation style, and logic.