Review Sheet: The Biology of Cognition & Behavior
The Nervous System “A Communication System”
Questions (no content)
1. Generally, explain the nervous system as a “input, process, construct & response loop”, including both the internal and external environments.
2. What is the primary function of the nervous system?
The Basic Parts of the Nervous System
2. Sensory neuron
3. Motor neuron
5. Glial Cells
1. What is the basic difference between sensory & motor neurons?
2. In terms of contact with the world outside the body, how are interneurons different from both sensory & motor neurons?
3. What role do glial cells play in the nervous system?
The Parts of a Neuron
3. Terminal buttons
4. Myelin sheath
6. Receptor Sites
1. Why are there multiple terminal buttons at the end of an axon?
2. What impact does myelin sheath have on neural transmission?
3. What determines which neurons are myelinated?
4. What impact does dendrites have on the surface area of a soma?
5. What does it mean to say that receptor sites are specialized?
6. Explain the “lock and key” analogy?
7. Why is it not accurate to say that a nerve is a single thing?
Communication Between Two Neurons
1. Presynaptic neuron
2. Postsynaptic neuron
3. Synapse/Synaptic Cleft
5. Action potential
6. Excitatory input
7. Inhibitory input
1. Why is a neuron not inherently either a pre or post neuron?
2. What is the difference between a synapse and a synaptic cleft?
3. Why are action potentials referred to as “all or nothing”?
4. What is the fundamental difference between an excitatory and inhibitory input?
5. How do excitatory and inhibitory inputs work together in the body?
6. What is the “general” function of glutamate and GABA?
7. Why do presynaptic neurons have a reuptake mechanism?
1. Neural Network “Brain Circuits”
2. Synaptic connection
3. Habit formation
4. Synaptic/Neural Pruning
5. Brain Plasticity
1. What is the function of neural networks?
2. How can new experiences impact existing neural networks?
3. What is the relationship between neural networks and habits?
4. What happens to neural networks if they are not used regularly?
5. What is meant by the phrase “neurons that fire together wire together”?
Note: The information on Neural Darwinism is extra, not covered on the test
Neurotransmitters and the Brain
1. Review: excitatory & inhibitory
4. Dopamine: pleasure & muscle control
5. Serotonin: mood regulation
7. Glutamate: learning & memory
1. Review: What is the function of neurotransmitters?
2. What are the two general actions of neurotransmitters?
3. Generally, what impact do drugs have on neurotransmission?
4. What are the two impacts of drugs on neurotransmission?
5. What is the association between dopamine and Schizophrenia?
6. What is the association between dopamine and Parkinson’s Disease?
7. How do SSRIs work to treat depression?
8. Generally, what is the major role of glutamate in the brain?
9. Where do people get glutamate from?
10. What is the relationship between glutamate and alcohol?
Divisions of the Nervous System
1. Sensory nervous system
2. Motor nervous system
3. Peripheral nervous system
4. Somatic system
5. Autonomic system
6. Sympathetic system
7. Parasympathetic system
8. Central nervous system
9. Spinal Cord
10. Spinal chord reflexes
1. How are the sensory & motor nervous systems different?
2. What is the primary function of the Peripheral Nervous System?
3. How are the somatic & autonomic nervous systems different?
4. How are the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems different?
5. Why is the spinal cord encased in bone?
6. What do humans have reflexes controlled by neurons in the spinal cord?
The Endocrine System
1. Endocrine system
2. Endocrine gland
4. Target cell
5. Pituitary gland
1. What is the main function of the endocrine system?
2. What are the major differences between the nervous and endocrine systems?
3. What is the relationship between a hormone and a target cell?
4. What is the function of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system?
5. What is the function of the pituitary gland?
6. What role does homeostasis play in keeping a human alive?
For each of the following parts of the brain,
you must know the primary function.
2. Reticular Formation
5. Procedural memory
9. Cerebral Cortex (aka the cortex)
10. Wrinkled Surface
11. Gyrus & Sulcus
13. Split Brain/Lateralization
14. Corpus Callosum
1. What are the primary functions of the oldest parts of the brain?
2. Why is procedural memory stored in the cerebellum?
3. What are the primary functions of the limbic system?
4. What is the significance of the nervous and endocrine systems being connected?
5. What effect does a nonfunctioning hippocampus have on a human?
6. What effect does a nonfunctioning amygdala have on a human?
7. Why is the shape of the cortex in the human skull misleading?
8. What is the difference between the grey & white cells?
9. What does it mean to say that hemispheric brain functions are primary but not exclusive?
10. What are some of the primary differences between left and right brain dominance functions?
11. What happens to an individual if their corpus callosum is cut?
Mapping the Brain
1. Anatomical Lobes
2. Functional Areas
3. Primary function of the Sensory Cortex
4. Primary function of the Somatosensory Cortex
6. Primary function of the Motor Cortex
7. Primary function of the Association Cortex
8. Primary functions of the Frontal cortex
9. Primary function of Broca’s Area
10. Primary function of Wernicke’s Area
1. What is the difference between an anatomical lobe and a functional area?
2. Why is the sensory cortex referred to as an umbrella term?
3. Why is the somatosensory cortex like a map?
4. Why does homunculus look so weird?
5. Why is the motor cortex like a map?
6. Why is the association cortex in the dark?
7. What is the connection between the association cortex and the subjective experience of mental life?
8. What is the role played by localized brain injuries and our understanding of brain function?