We write proposals to request something—permission, resources, sponsorship—or to urge someone to take action. When writing a proposal, it’s crucial to know your audience and to be clear about what you want.
Proposals vary depending on their purpose. In an academic setting, proposals are often written by students or professors to request funding for research. Doctoral candidates are typically required to submit a dissertation proposal to their committee. Businesses use proposals to outline ventures to potential investors or banks or to make in-house suggestions for improvements and projects. Each use brings with it different requirements.
Below are general guidelines for proposals. The exact specifications for your proposal will depend on its intended audience and purpose.
Proposals can be presented in many ways, including application forms, letters, essays, or formal reports. If a format has not been specified in the call for proposals (CFP) or in your assignment, find a sample for a similar proposal on the internet.
Don’t forget that many readers skim. Make your writing visually appealing by keeping paragraphs reasonably short and using headings. Headings and topic sentences at the beginning of each paragraph will guide readers and allow them to locate information easily.
Choose a professional, readable font and never use less than a 12-point size. If you are filling in a form and the text is too long for the prescribed space, don’t decrease the font size. Instead, edit your work and omit unnecessary words. Easy readability is essential for successful proposals.
Your proposal’s length depends on its purpose. A dissertation proposal is typically 10-20 pages long, whereas a business proposal is usually closer to three pages (although detailed proposals to banks can exceed 20 pages). The important thing is to include all the essential information without boring or overwhelming your readers.
The style of a proposal is partially dictated by the audience, type of proposal, and purpose. In most proposals, however, the valued style is clear, direct, and unbiased (especially in the technical or scientific disciplines). Technical jargon and common acronyms can be used if the audience is narrow and expert, but be careful. Many proposals go to both expert and non-expert readers for review.
If your proposal is in essay form and is written for a popular audience, the language may be more impassioned or even poetic, but clarity is still valued by most readers. In academic writing, you need to present a logical argument and avoid fallacies.
Parts of a Proposal
The elements included here are those commonly found in proposals; however, not every proposal requires every element in this order.
If you’re unsure about whether or not to include something, ask yourself whether the information would help your readers make an informed decision about the project. Remember, too, that all proposals are ultimately selling something. Use the various sections of the proposal not only to present information, but also to build a persuasive argument for why your idea should be adopted or why you’re the best person to take on a particular project.
Title, Cover Page, Qualifications. The title should be descriptive and capture the essence of your overall goal. Include your name, date, and course name. Include your qualifications and those of anyone working on the project to make the reviewers feel you are competent to carry out the plan.
Ex.1 “Acquisition of Artis zeego (by Siemens) for improved Interventional imaging and workflow”
Ex.2 “Funding for software for iterative Computed Tomography reconstruction”
Abstract / Executive Summary: An informative summary of the project in 250 words or less that includes the problem, the proposed project, the solution or work plan, the implementation method, and the significance of the proposed course.
Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Appendices. These are added in long or formal proposals to help the reader find information. If included, they should proceed in this order. You may include a cover page and table of contents without including the others or some other combination of the given items.
Problem identification / Environmental Analysis. Also called the statement of purpose, this section explains why the proposed project is worth approval or funding. It explicitly states the problems being addressed or describes the work’s contributions to knowledge in its field. Ideally, this section should convince your readers that the problem is sufficiently grave to merit putting resources into a solution. If possible, outline probable benefits of a solution. 1-2 paragraphs.
The second part of this section requires an environmental scan. Using one of the environmental analysis tools provided in the module – conduct an environmental analysis of your product, service, etc. Include a visual components as well as a supporting paragraph of discussion.
Description of the project, solution, or work plan. Be specific and realistic about exactly what you will do. If you are proposing to report on personal research at a conference, make it clear you have conducted the research and explain what you have found. If you want to receive money to conduct research, demonstrate that you know exactly how you will proceed. If you are funding a project, equipment, etc, demonstrate the value it will bring short and long term. For example, proposals that offer alternative ways to approach workflow, procedure management, systems/operations, or services should provide history, challenges, implementation issues, and if this solves the current issue. What are your goals/objectives?
Don’t promise what you can’t deliver: the plan should be feasible and plausible. Never overpromise or inflate, but do show enthusiasm and passion for the project.
(Description, significance, methods, and problems should average 1 page in length).
Significance. Describe your work’s contribution to knowledge, whether to your field or to society at large. If you are proposing a technology, describe relative details that provide deliverables and solutions. Are you offering an innovative approach to an old problem or helping solve a new one? How will accepting your proposal benefit your intended audience? Will they see a tangible or measurable result from your work?
Methods. At all levels, be as specific as possible about what you will do. You might also address methods others have used and whether you are making refinements to their processes.
Problems. The problems section is different from problem identification. This section, typically brief, offers a frank acknowledgment of barriers that might impede your progress or derail your project. To offset the negative impact, make it clear that you are thinking through possible problems so they don’t catch you unaware. Give solutions or alternatives you might take to breach potential obstacles.
Budget. Present your expected costs and revenue (if any) specifically and clearly. Don’t hide costs or lump items together in a way that suggests you’re padding the budget or concealing something. Brief outline/overview – see sample. As an alternative, a short narrative can be provided.
Timeline. The timeline shows you have a realistic view of what you can achieve and how long it will take. It indicates that you’re prepared and have time management skills. How will this be implemented? 1-2 paragraphs, or a visual timeline.
References. Any research or literature you cited or consulted in preparing your proposal should be cited. Be aware that some readers might skip ahead to the references to see if you’ve included the most current or trusted research. References and intext citations should adhere to APA 7h ed.
Appendices: supplementary material or data. If including data in the report would make it too long, but you feel the information supports your argument, you can place it in an appendix. You can
also use appendices for letters of support, copies of surveys, proof from an Institutional Review Board that you have their permission, and so on. If the budget or timeline is long or complex, you might add it to the appendices as well. Separate out each item and label it as an appendix. Include a list of appendices with the table of contents. If something in the appendices is particularly important, make sure you have included a reference to it in the main proposal, usually in parentheses (Appendix 1).
In your final draft, make sure all parts fit together and that all necessary data is included.
(Modified from: Texas A&M University, Writing Center, “Proposals”, 2015).
SAMPLE Project Budget Outline US$
Grant Other Sources (if any)
10 Project Personnel *
11.51Consultant 1 150$/month*10months 1500
11.52 Consultant 2 150$/month*10months 1500
13.00 Administrative Support
13.01Financial officer 450$*10months
13.02Administrator 400$/month*10months 1500
15.00 Official Travel
15.01 Travel in 7 districts 120$/month*10months 1200
19.00 Component Total 5700
33.00 In-service Training
33.01Rent of the workshop facilities
33.02Handout preparation 50$*9workshops 450
33.03Refreshments 100$*9workshops 900
33.04Coordination fee for the districts
33.05Stationaries 50$*9workshops 450
33.06Transportation for the workshop
33.07Per diem/Accomodation 80$*8workshops*5people 3200
33.08Info sheets 200$*3types(500copies each) 600
39.00Component Total 7400
41.01Toner/Printer cartridge 100$/month*10months 1000
41.02Stationaries 50$/month*10month 500
42.01PC Computer&Printer 1500$ 1500
49.00Component Total 3000
51.00Operation, Maintenance, Repair of equipment 30$/month*10months 300
52.00Publications of the tool keet 2$/copy*1000copies 2000
53.00Sundry and communications 100$/month*10months 1000
59.00Component Total 3300
99.00 Grand Total 19400
Narrative to budget line items:
* Project Personnel – the project will require two consultants to implement the workshops and financial officers to manage the logistics
** Training – the project objectives will be met by undertaking 9 workshops on capacity building and will include the above costs
***Equipment – the organization would require the following equipment in order to prepare for the workshops,etc.
Please Note: Papers should be submitted in APA format (title page, running header, page numbers, in text citations, reference page). Papers submitted that drastically neglect APA formatting will result in a score of a zero