Threat of an earthquake to San Francisco, California (San Andreas Fault), or Nashville, Tennessee (New Madrid Fault)
The content of your paper must be at least 7 pages in length (double-spaced, Times New Roman 12 font), not including cover page, references, appendix, tables, etc.
1) a Cover page, which must include the title of the paper, your name, date of submission, and course name.
2) an Abstract or Introduction, which states the purpose of the paper.
3) Sub-headers for each topic as prescribed by the Guidelines listed below, which also serves as the evidence to be graded; and
4) A Conclusion, which summarizes your research findings, and includes comments of your personal perspective about the topic. The research paper must include a minimum of five (5) references, which must be properly cited using APA (7th edition) guidelines. Never use Wikipedia, which is unacceptable. All projects will be checked through Turnitin.
Specific Paper Guidelines and grading rubric outline
v First, conduct thorough research for the ‘Topic’, and be sure to use/cite a minimum of five (5) reference sources > APA 7th edition, citation/bibliography format. (10/10)
v Second, consider the hazard in relation to the setting and the probability of a future occurrence based on history. Sub-header > History of Hazard. (20/20)
v Third, apply the principles of mitigation and planning considerations to the topic: Sub-header > Principles of Mitigation. (20/20)
¨ Please look at (Book specific aides for the paper) these are listed as mitigation tools.
v Fourth, outline a community planning and preparedness program, and include the purpose and need of timely and accurate communication: Sub-header > Community Preparedness & Communication. (20/20)
v Fifth, provide an overview of the principles of Response and Recovery, and include significant factors necessary promote and enhance communication, collaboration, and cooperation: Sub-header > Principles of Response & Recovery. (20/20)
v Lastly, must include the following: Cover page, Abstract, Conclusion, Sub-headers, Bibliography, spelling/grammar/punctuation; references cited; APA 7th edition format. (10/10)
Book specific aides for the paper
The following mitigation tools are known to reduce risk
• Hazard identification and mapping
You cannot mitigate a hazard if you do not know what it is or whom it affects. The most essential part of any mitigation strategy or plan is an analysis of what the hazards are in a area. The resources for hazard identification are numerous.
• Design and construction applications
The design and construction process provides one of the most cost-effective means of addressing risk. Building codes, architecture and design criteria, and soils and landscaping considerations govern this process. Code criteria that supports risk reduction usually apply only to new construction, substantial renovation, or renovation to change the type or use of the building.
• Land-use planning
The strategies for land-use planning offer many options for effecting mitigation, including acquisition, easements, stormwater management, annexation, environmental review, and floodplain
• Financial incentives
The financial incentives tool is an emerging area for promoting mitigation. Among the approaches being used by localities to reduce risks are creating special tax assessments, passing tax increases or bonds to pay for mitigation, offering relocation assistance, and targeting federal community development or renewal grant funds for mitigation.
Some people would argue with the inclusion of insurance as a mitigation tool. Their reasoning is that insurance by itself only provides for a transfer of the risk from the individual or community to the insurance company. Although this is true, the NFIP is a prime example of how, if properly designed, the insurance mechanism can be a tool for mitigation.
• Structural controls
The most common form of structural control is the levee. The US Army Corps of Engineers has designed and built levees as flood-control structures across the United States.
• Nonstructural actions
Nonstructural mitigation measures include adopting and enforcing building codes, buying out at-risk properties and deeding the land as open space not to be redeveloped, restoration of natural resources such as wetlands that absorb rainwater and reduce flooding impacts, using fire-resistant building materials that reduce the damage caused by wildfires, drafting and enforcing zoning and land use ordinances and regulations that restrict development in high-risk areas such as floodplains and earthquake zones, and low-cost building construction techniques such as attaching hurricane straps to the roof of a house to reduce the chances that the roof will be ripped off by hurricane-force winds.