It is a Masters Term Paper however I do not see Masters amongst the dropdown list so I took University. Also, I will be attaching documents that talk about writing style, etc. Question 2 should be done. The writing style is Modified Harvard meaning Harvard but Should include FOOTNOTES. Please look at these instructions and attached documents.
a) Generally, writing a term paper (essay) takes several weeks of intensive work. Therefore, it is important not to begin too late and the plan the timing of the task in advance. A Master’s Thesis requires more time and, therefore, even more careful planning.
b) A paper/thesis has to be fruits of your own labour. Copying work of others fully or in part, or having others write the paper for you, is plagiarism and a violation of academic standards of honesty. Any attempt to plagiarise will be submitted to University disciplinary procedures.
c) The paper/thesis should demonstrate the ability to identify an issue or question which needs attention or clarification, or a matter subject to controversy which needs resolution. All relevant information and opinions from sources available to you should be addressed. The focus must be on the topic selected. Treatment of more general background of issues which are basic knowledge of the area of law you are dealing with should not be included. The paper should show the ability to distinguish between more and less important material. Conflicting opinions and views should be brought together in order to come to considered and reasonable conclusions.
d) The relevant literature has to be consulted and cited when preparing the paper/thesis. Materials typically relevant for a topic in the field of IHL are formal legal instruments (international treaties, protocols, national legislation, etc.) case law (i.e. decisions of courts), public reports, and secondary literature (relevant monographs, collections of essays, and articles in academic journals). A key function of a paper/thesis is to show the ability to find, select and use relevant sources.
e) Sources should be up‐to‐date (especially case law and secondary literature), unless the topic specifically requires the use of older material.
f) Make sure that you express yourself in a clear, simple, and comprehensible way. This is part of the self‐discipline of good writing. Clear and precise writing shows a good understanding of the subject matter. Where English is not your native language it is highly advised to have the paper checked by a native speaker before submission.
g)All documents submitted in relation to the preparation of a paper/thesis should be read and checked (proofread) carefully before submission to avoid typing, spelling, and grammatical errors.
a) A paper/thesis has the following elements (in this order):
• Cover Sheet (downloaded from the IHL‐Website)
• Title Page (showing Title of the Paper, Author Name + Email, Course Module Name and Number, Name of Professor, Semester, and Submission Date)
• Table of Contents (i.e. the complete list of headings and sub‐headings used to structure the document)
• Table of Legal Instruments and Table of Cases (for Master’s Thesis only)
• List of Abbreviations used
• Bibliography (alphabetical list of literature)
• Term papers: c. 2,500‐3,000 words (in modules of 15 contact hours; c. 4000 words will be expected for papers in modules with 30 contact hours).
• Master’s Thesis: c. 20‐22,000 words (70‐80 pages)
• 12 point font
• line spacing 1.5
• left‐hand margin of 7 cm
• right‐hand margin of 3 cm
Page Numbering and Headers/Footers;
• All pages except the title page should be numbered.
• The Table of Contents (plus any other tables) should be numbering in small roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.)
• The Text and Bibliography should be numbered (starting from 1) in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.)
• All documents of more than one page should have a header or footer showing the author and document title. The page numbering can conveniently be part of the header/footer, as can the date of printing.
a) The bibliography is the collection of all literature which has been read and used in the paper. It is not meant to be a collection of all the literature ever written on the topic.
b) Literature, which is the basis of what you have written, whether quoted directly or merely as a source of information or ideas, and which adds to your understanding of the matter, has be cited with full details of the reference.
c) Using ideas and writing of other scholars without reference to their publications is intellectually dishonest and is a violation of the basic rules of academic writing. This will not be tolerated and will be regarded as a plagiarism. The bibliography should conform to the rules set out in the IHL Style Guide
a) Direct quotations — the word‐for‐word copying of text from a source — should only be used if the specific wording is important, for example in the case of definitions in case‐law or legislation, or where an author has used a particular formulation which is needed for your presentation or argument.
b) When quoting, always remember:
• Quotations have to be verified personally by the author of a paper/thesis. A direct quotation has to be exactly the original wording (where necessary with … to indicate matter omitted).
• Every direct quotation has to be marked by quotation marks! Non‐marked quotations are regarded as the plagiarised work of other authors.
•At the end of the quotations the exact source of the citation has to be indicated in a footnote. The reason for this is to allow verification of the citation. Therefore a citation has to be as precise as possible including page numbers and where possible paragraph numbers in case of citation of books, articles and case‐law. When citing legislation, be as precise as possible citing an article, section, paragraph, etc.
c) Indirect citations reflect thoughts and considerations of other authors including case‐law without their being directly quoted. This is the standard form of a citation. Indirect citations also need to be referred to in footnotes. Footnotes with references to indirect citations follow exactly the same rules as those for direct quotations.
d)All individual referencing should be presented in footnotes which should be numbered consecutively throughout the document.
e)Any academic standard form of citation is acceptable as long as that form of citation follows an internationally accepted standard and remains the same throughout the document. If in doubt, use the IHL Style Guide.